Sign up for Equitymaster's free daily newsletter, The 5 Minute WrapUp and get access to our latest Multibagger guide (2017 Edition) on picking money-making stocks.

This is an entirely free service. No payments are to be made.

Download Now Subscribe to our free daily e-letter, The 5 Minute WrapUp and get this complimentary report.
We hate spam as much as you do. Check out our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use.
Fertilisers: Options beyond Retention Pricing - Views on News from Equitymaster
  • E-MAIL
  • A  A  A
  • Sep 9, 2000

    Fertilisers: Options beyond Retention Pricing

    The fertiliser industry is a classic case of an industry where, necessary reforms in the policy framework have been avoided in the name of the self–sufficiency. This has led to a situation where the efficient producers (read tax payers) subsidise the inefficient ones, where setting up greenfield capacities is more beneficial than brownfield expansion and the opening up post WTO would now make almost a third of the industry sick!

    The Retention Pricing Scheme (RPS) is the backbone of the fertiliser industry. It was introduced in November 1977 in the wake of the increase in crude oil prices in the early seventies when the prices of both imported fertilisers as well as fertiliser feedstock (naphtha) increased substantially. This lead to a decline in the consumption of fertilisers and the government, in order to help build indigenous fertiliser capacity and boost fertiliser consumption set up a committee under Mr. Marathe. The outcome of the recommendations of the committee was the RPS. The scheme intended to provide fertilisers at a cheaper rate to the farmers and provide a ‘reasonable’ return on investment for the fertiliser producers, which would boost investment in the industry.

    While the Marathe committee recommended industry wide norms, the government adopted a plant by plant norm. This led to entrepreneurs to focus their energies on getting their costs approved rather than focus on cutting costs. This was because the retention price paid varied between plant to plant depending on the feedstock used (whether naphtha, fuel oil, gas or coal) and took into account the conversion costs, selling costs, interest on debt, depreciation and capacity utilisation of the plant itself. For instance, the capacity utilisation norm for a gas–based plant has been fixed at 90%. So if a plant were to operate at 110%, the effective post tax return would work out to 14.67% (12/90*110).

    Thus a higher capital cost implies a higher retention price for a plant provided the company is able to meet its capacity utilisation norms. This led to the goldplating of costs and understatement of nameplate capacities. Consequently, the production cost of urea in India varying anywhere between $100 to $300 per tonne as against an import parity price, which is almost half of that. Over the past few years with the fertiliser subsidy ballooning to over Rs 135 bn per annum there has been a debate over the feasibility of continuing with the RPS. Besides, with the quantitative restrictions having to be compulsorily lifted by April 2001, imports of fertilisers will anyway be an available option.

    Various alternatives have been suggested. One alternative is that the rated capacity of the plants be increased. The average production over the last two year’s could be taken as a benchmark. The government infact has appointed a committee under Mr. Y. K. Alagh and as an interim measure increased the rated capacity of 15 urea units. The second option for the government is to buy fertiliser at retention prices only upto 100 percent or 110 percent of the rated capacity with the rest being bought by the tender systems for which international companies should also be allowed to bid. The third option as has been suggested by the Hanumantha Committee is the scrapping of the RPS. This would have to be accompanied by putting an alternative mechanism based on the long run marginal costs (LRMC). The committee has calculated the LRMC at around Rs 6,050 per tonne and adding the freight and distribution margins the cost would work out to around Rs 6,500 per tonne. Obviously, the naphtha, coal and fuel oil based plants will be in trouble vis-à-vis gas based plants. A one time capital subsidy has been suggested along with the suggested a raising the price of urea by 10–15% every year for the next three years.

    The Gas Advantage
    Variable Cost per tonne of urea (in Rs)
    Year Gas Naphtha Fuel Oil Coal
    FY92 1,797 2,724 2,252 3,461
    FY96 2,242 4,308 3,672 5,421
    FY99 2,806 6,160 5,045 7,904
    Source: FAI, New Delhi

    The industry has been arguing otherwise stating that plants based on naphtha and coal (almost half the industry is based on naphtha and coal) will have to close down and that would amount to a loss of production of more than 50%. Secondly, though international prices are low at the moment, if India were to enter the market, global suppliers would jack up prices, which would nullify the gains from closure of uneconomic capacities. Also it is the local sales taxes and high import duties on feedstocks which distort the cost structure of the industry. Also, the rise in feedstock prices over the year's has far outstripped the subsidy that the government has paid out to the industry.

    Factors affecting fertliser subsidy
    Particulars Amount
    (Rs m)
    Gross cost push
    Increase in subsidy
    1)  Indigenous feedstock
         and other inputs
    9,505.0 72.2 177.5
    2)  Freight 900.7 6.8 16.8
    3)  Increase in production (464.0) (3.5) (8.7)
    4)  Misc cost increases 3,220.3 24.5 60.1
    5)  Gross cost push (1+2+3+4) 13,162.0 100.0 245.7
    6)  Excess realisation due to
         increase in selling price
    7,805.7 - 145.7
    7)  Increase in subsidy (5-6) 5,356.3 - 100.0
    Note: Based on the data of 17 units accounting for about 50%
    of the urea production between 1990-91 to 1996-97
    Source: FAI, New Delhi

    And so, the debate continues. What both the opponents and the proponents of the RPS however agree on is that the price of urea should be increased gradually by around 10% every year. Economically, it makes sense to abolish the RPS and better ways of subsidy to the farmers could be worked out since a subsidy on fertilisers is not the only way of providing farm subsidy.



    Equitymaster requests your view! Post a comment on "Fertilisers: Options beyond Retention Pricing ". Click here!


    More Views on News

    Tata Chemicals: Lower Finance Costs Boost Profits (Quarterly Results Update - Detailed)

    Jun 2, 2017

    Tata Chemicals registers 54.2% YoY rise in net profits during fourth quarter of FY17 on the back of lower finance costs and rise in other income.

    Tata Chemicals: Urea division dampens performance (Quarterly Results Update - Detailed)

    Nov 18, 2016

    Tata Chemicals has reported consolidated topline fall of 17% YoY while the bottomline has fallen 5% YoY

    Tata Chemicals: Operating margins catalyze strong profit growth (Quarterly Results Update - Detailed)

    Aug 18, 2016

    Tata Chemicals has reported consolidated topline fall of 9% YoY while the bottomline has grown 40% YoY.

    Tata Chemicals: Consolidated profits down substantially (Quarterly Results Update - Detailed)

    Mar 2, 2016

    Tata Chemicals has reported consolidated topline fall of 4% YoY while the bottom line has fallen 45% YoY

    More Views on News

    Most Popular

    Demonetisation Barely Made Any Difference to Tax Collections(Vivek Kaul's Diary)

    Aug 7, 2017

    The data tells us quite a different story from the one the government is trying to project.

    Proxy Plays: A Smart Way to Bet on 'Off Limits' Companies(The 5 Minute Wrapup)

    Aug 4, 2017

    The small-cap space is full of small players that are clear proxies to great growth stories and Indian megatrends.

    Should You Invest In Bharat-22 ETF? Know Here...(Outside View)

    Aug 8, 2017

    Bharat-22 is one of the most diverse ETFs offered so far by the Government. Know here if you should invest...

    Signs of Life in the India VIX(Daily Profit Hunter)

    Aug 12, 2017

    The India VIX is up 36% in the last week. Fear has gone up but is still low by historical standards.

    7 Financial Gifts For Your Sister This Raksha Bandhan(Outside View)

    Aug 7, 2017

    Raksha Bandhan signifies the brother-sister bond. Here are 7 thoughtful financial gifts for sisters...

    Copyright © Equitymaster Agora Research Private Limited. All rights reserved.
    Any act of copying, reproducing or distributing this newsletter whether wholly or in part, for any purpose without the permission of Equitymaster is strictly prohibited and shall be deemed to be copyright infringement.

    LEGAL DISCLAIMER: Equitymaster Agora Research Private Limited (hereinafter referred as 'Equitymaster') is an independent equity research Company. Equitymaster is not an Investment Adviser. Information herein should be regarded as a resource only and should be used at one's own risk. This is not an offer to sell or solicitation to buy any securities and Equitymaster will not be liable for any losses incurred or investment(s) made or decisions taken/or not taken based on the information provided herein. Information contained herein does not constitute investment advice or a personal recommendation or take into account the particular investment objectives, financial situations, or needs of individual subscribers. Before acting on any recommendation, subscribers should consider whether it is suitable for their particular circumstances and, if necessary, seek an independent professional advice. This is not directed for access or use by anyone in a country, especially, USA or Canada, where such use or access is unlawful or which may subject Equitymaster or its affiliates to any registration or licensing requirement. All content and information is provided on an 'As Is' basis by Equitymaster. Information herein is believed to be reliable but Equitymaster does not warrant its completeness or accuracy and expressly disclaims all warranties and conditions of any kind, whether express or implied. Equitymaster may hold shares in the company/ies discussed herein. As a condition to accessing Equitymaster content and website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions of Use, available here. The performance data quoted represents past performance and does not guarantee future results.

    SEBI (Research Analysts) Regulations 2014, Registration No. INH000000537.

    Equitymaster Agora Research Private Limited. 103, Regent Chambers, Above Status Restaurant, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 400 021. India.
    Telephone: +91-22-61434055. Fax: +91-22-22028550. Email: info@equitymaster.com. Website: www.equitymaster.com. CIN:U74999MH2007PTC175407

    Become A Smarter Investor In
    Just 5 Minutes

    Multibagger Stocks Guide 2017
    Get our special report, Multibagger Stocks Guide (2017 Edition) Now!
    We will never sell or rent your email id.
    Please read our Terms